Reliability, Maintainability and Risk


Reliability, Maintainability and Risk


Reliability, Maintainability and Risk
 Reliability, Maintainability and Risk

    Reliability, Maintainability and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers, Ninth Edition, has taught reliability and safety engineers techniques to minimize process design, operation defects, and failures for 35 years. For beginners, the book provides tactics on how to avoid pitfalls in this complex and wide field. For experts in the field, well-described, realistic, and illustrative examples and case studies add new insight and assistance. The author uses his 40 years of experience to create a comprehensive and detailed guide to the field, also providing an excellent description of reliability and risk computation concepts. The book is organized into five parts. Part One covers reliability parameters and costs traces the history of reliability and safety technology, presenting a cost-effective approach to quality, reliability, and safety. Part Two deals with the interpretation of failure rates, while Part Three focuses on the prediction of reliability and risk. Part Four discusses design and assurance techniques, review and testing techniques, reliability growth modeling, field data collection and feedback, predicting and demonstrating repair times, quantified reliability maintenance, and systematic failures, while Part 5 deals with legal, management and safety issues, such as project management, product liability, and safety legislation.

Maintenance Fundamentals


Table Of Contents

Part 1: Understanding Reliability Parameters and Costs

Chapter 1: The History of Reliability and Safety Technology


1.1. Failure Data

1.2. Hazardous Failures

1.3. Predicting Reliability and Risk

1.4. Achieving Reliability and Safety-Integrity

1.5. The RAMS-Cycle

1.6. Contractual and Legal Pressures

1.7. Reliability versus Functional Safety

Chapter 2: Understanding Terms and Jargon


2.1. Defining Failure and Failure Modes

2.2. Failure Rate and Mean Time Between Failures

2.3. Interrelationships of Terms

2.4. The Bathtub Distribution

2.5. Down Time and Repair Time

2.6. Availability, Unavailability and Probability of Failure on Demand

2.7. Hazard and Risk-Related Terms

2.8. Choosing the Appropriate Parameter

Chapter 3: A Cost-Effective Approach to Quality, Reliability and Safety


3.1. Reliability and Optimum Cost

3.2. Costs and Safety

3.3. The Cost of Quality

Part 2: Interpreting Failure Rates

Chapter 4: Realistic Failure Rates and Prediction Confidence


4.1. Data Accuracy

4.2. Sources of Data

4.3. Data Ranges

4.4. Confidence Limits of Prediction

4.5. Manufacturers’ Data (Warranty Claims)

4.6. Overall Conclusions

Chapter 5: Interpreting Data and Demonstrating Reliability


5.1. The Four Cases

5.2. Inference and Confidence Levels

5.3. The Chi-Square Test

5.4. Understanding the Method in More Detail

5.5. Double-Sided Confidence Limits

5.6. Reliability Demonstration

5.7. Sequential Testing

5.8. Setting Up Demonstration Tests


Chapter 6: Variable Failure Rates and Probability Plotting


6.1. The Weibull Distribution

6.2. Using the Weibull Method

6.3. More Complex Cases of the Weibull Distribution

6.4. Continuous Processes

Part 3: Predicting Reliability and Risk

Chapter 7: Basic Reliability Prediction Theory


7.1. Why Predict RAMS?

7.2. Probability Theory

7.3. Reliability of Series Systems

7.4. Redundancy Rules

7.5. General Features of Redundancy


Chapter 8: Methods of Modeling


8.1. Block Diagrams and Repairable Systems

8.2. Common Cause (Dependent) Failure

8.3. Fault Tree Analysis

8.4. Event Tree Diagrams

Chapter 9: Quantifying the Reliability Models


9.1. The Reliability Prediction Method

9.2. Allowing for Diagnostic Intervals

9.3. FMEDA (Failure Mode and Diagnostic Analysis)

9.4. Human Factors

9.5. Simulation

9.6. Comparing Predictions with Targets

Chapter 10: Risk Assessment (QRA)


10.1. Frequency and Consequence

10.2. Perception of Risk, ALARP and Cost per Life Saved

10.3. Hazard Identification

10.4. Factors to Quantify

Part 4: Achieving Reliability and Maintainability

Chapter 11: Design and Assurance Techniques


11.1. Specifying and Allocating the Requirement

11.2. Stress Analysis

11.3. Environmental Stress Protection

11.4. Failure Mechanisms

11.5. Complexity and Parts

11.6. Burn-In and Screening

11.7. Maintenance Strategies


Chapter 12: Design Review, Test and Reliability Growth


12.1. Review Techniques

12.2. Categories of Testing

12.3. Reliability Growth Modeling

Chapter 13: Field Data Collection and Feedback


13.1. Reasons for Data Collection

13.2. Information and Difficulties

13.3. Times to Failure

13.4. Spreadsheets and Databases

13.5. Best Practice and Recommendations

13.6. Analysis and Presentation of Results

13.7. Manufacturers’ data

13.8. Anecdotal Data

13.9. Examples of Failure Report Forms

13.10. No-Fault-Found (NFF)

Chapter 14: Factors Influencing Down Time


14.1. Key Design Areas

14.2. Maintenance Strategies and Handbooks

Chapter 15: Predicting and Demonstrating Repair Times


15.1. Prediction Methods

15.2. Demonstration Plans

Chapter 16: Quantified Reliability Centered Maintenance


16.1. What is QRCM?

16.2. The QRCM Decision Process

16.3. Optimum Replacement (Discard)

16.4. Optimum Spares

16.5. Optimum Proof Test

16.6. Condition Monitoring

Chapter 17: Systematic Failures, Especially Software


17.1. Random versus Systematic Failures

17.2. Software-related Failures

17.3. Software Failure Modeling

17.4. Software Quality Assurance (Life Cycle Activities)

17.5. Modern/Formal Methods

17.6. Software Checklists


Part 5: Legal, Management and Safety Considerations

Chapter 18: Project Management and Competence


18.1. Setting Objectives and Making Specifications

18.2. Planning, Feasibility and Allocation

18.3. Program Activities

18.4. Responsibilities and Competence

18.5. Functional Safety Capability

18.6. Standards and Guidance Documents

Chapter 19: Contract Clauses and Their Pitfalls


19.1. Essential Areas

19.2. Other Areas

19.3. Pitfalls

19.4. Penalties

19.5. Subcontracted Reliability Assessments

Chapter 20: Product Liability and Safety Legislation


20.1. The General Situation

20.2. Strict Liability

20.3. The Consumer Protection Act 1987

20.4. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

20.5. Insurance and Product Recall

Chapter 21: Major Incident Legislation


21.1. History of Major Incidents

21.2. Development of major incident legislation

21.3. Safety reports

21.4. Offshore Safety Cases

21.5. Problem Areas

21.6. Rail

21.7. Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide

Chapter 22: Integrity of Safety-Related Systems


22.1. Safety-Related or Safety-Critical?

22.2. Safety-Integrity Levels (SILs)

22.3. Programable electronic systems (PESs)

22.4. Current guidance

22.5. Framework for Certification

Chapter 23: A Case Study: The Datamet Project


23.1. Introduction

23.2. The Datamet Concept

23.3. The Contract

23.4. Detailed Design

23.5. Syndicate Study

23.6. Hints


Chapter 24: A Case Study: Gas Detection System


24.1. Safety-Integrity Target

24.2. Random Hardware Failures

24.3. ALARP

24.4. Architectures

24.5. Life-Cycle Activities

24.6. Functional Safety Capability

Chapter 25: A Case Study: Pressure Control System


25.1. The Unprotected System

25.2. Protection System

25.3. Assumptions

25.4. Reliability Block Diagram

25.5. Failure Rate Data

25.6. Quantifying the Model

25.7. Proposed Design and Maintenance Modifications

25.8. Modeling Common Cause Failure (Pressure Transmitters)

25.9. Quantifying the Revised Model

25.10. ALARP

25.11. Architectural Constraints

Chapter 26: Helicopter Incidents and Risk Assessment


26.1. Helicopter Incidents

26.2. Risk Assessment - Floatation Equipment

26.3. Effect of Pilot Experience on Incident Rate

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