Basics of PLC


Basics of PLC

Automation Overview

Basics of PLC
Basics of PLC

The word ‘Automation’ is derived from Greek words “Auto” (self) and “Matos” (moving). Automation therefore is the mechanism for systems that “move by itself”. However, apart from this original sense of the word, automated systems also achieve significantly superior performance than what is possible with manual systems, in terms of power, precision and speed of operation.

Definition: Automation is a set of technologies that results in operation of machines and systems without significant human intervention and achieves performance superior to manual operation


Types of automation

Fixed Automation: It is used in high volume production with dedicated equipment, which has a fixed set of operation and designed to be efficient for this set. Continuous flow and Discrete Mass Production systems use this automation. E.g. Distillation Process, Conveyors, Paint Shops, Transfer lines etc. A process using mechanized machinery to perform fixed and repetitive operations in order to produce a high volume of similar parts.

Programmable Automation: It is used for a changeable sequence of operation and configuration of the machines using electronic controls. However, non-trivial programming effort may be needed to reprogram the machine or sequence of operations. Investment on programmable equipment is less, as production process is not changed frequently. It is typically used in Batch process where job variety is low and product volume is medium to high, and sometimes in mass production also. E.g. in Steel Rolling Mills, Paper Mills etc.

Flexible Automation: It is used in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) which is invariably computer controlled. Human operators give high-level commands in the form of codes entered into computer identifying product and its location in the sequence and the lower level changes are done automatically.

Power factor correction: a guide for the plant engineer


Table of Contents

1-Automation Overview

2-System Overview

3-Digital Fundamentals

4-Engineering Software TIA Portal

5-Devices & Networks

6-PLC Tags

7-Program Blocks & Editor

8-Binary Operations

9-Digital Operations

10-Data Blocks

11-Function & Function Blocks

12-Organization Blocks 

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