Embedded System Design


Embedded System Design

Embedded System Design
Embedded System Design


    An embedded system can be thought of as a computer hardware system having software embedded in it. An embedded system may be a standalone unit or a component of a larger system. A system built on a microcontroller or microprocessor and intended to carry out a certain function is called an embedded system. A fire alarm, for instance, is an embedded device that only detects smoke.

There are three parts to an embedded system:

  • Hardware.
  • It has software for applications.
  • Its Real Time Operating System (RTOS) manages the application software and offers a framework to let the processor operate a task in accordance with scheduling by adhering to a plan to control latencies. RTOS defines the way the system works. It sets the rules during the execution of application program. A small scale embedded system may not have RTOS. So we can define an embedded system as a Microcontroller based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system.

Control Systems for Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning

Basic Structure of an Embedded System

  • Sensor − It measures the physical quantity and converts it to an electrical signal which can be read by an observer or by any electronic instrument like an A2D converter. A sensor stores the measured quantity to the memory.

  • A-D Converter − An analog-to-digital converter converts the analog signal sent by the sensor into a digital signal.

  • Processor & ASICs − Processors process the data to measure the output and store it to the memory.

  • D-A Converter − A digital-to-analog converter converts the digital data fed by the processor to analog data

  • Actuator − An actuator compares the output given by the D-A Converter to the actual (expected) output stored in it and stores the approved output.


Table of contents

1. Introduction
2. Specifications and Modeling.
  • 2.1 Requirements
  • 2.2 Models of Computation
  • 2.3 Early Design Phases
  • 2.4 Communicating Finite State Machines
  • 2.5 Data Flow
  • 2.6 Petri Nets
  • 2.7 Discrete Event-Based Languages
  • 2.8 Von-Neumann Languages
  • 2.9 Levels of Hardware Modeling
  • 2.10 Comparison of Models of Computation
3.Embedded System Hardware.
  • 3.1 Processing Units
  • 3.2 Memories
  • 3.3 Communication
  • 3.4 Output
  • 3.5 Electrical Energy: Energy Efficiency, Generation, and Storage
  • 3.6 Secure Hardware
4. System Software
  • 4.1 Embedded Operating Systems
  • 4.2 Resource Access Protocols
  • 4.3 ERIKA.
  • 4.4 Embedded Linux
  • 4.5 Hardware Abstraction Layers
  • 4.6 Middleware
  • 4.7 Real-Time Databases
5. Evaluation and Validation
6. Application Mapping
7. Optimization
8. Test

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